HRMS fragmentation spectrum of cannabigerol (CBG) in positive (A) and negative (B) ionization mode.
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in positive (A) and negative (B) ionization mode of LC-HRMS data of hemp seed oils. Samples are named as “oil_number” (e.g., oil_1); the colored ellipsoids represent the 95% confidence region. Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) in positive (C) and negative (D) ionization mode of the LC-HRMS data of hemp seed oils. PLS-DA is performed by rotating the PCA components in order to obtain the maximum separation among the groups. Validation parameters: R 2 = 0.915; Q 2 = 0.755.
HRMS fragmentation spectrum of Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC or THC) in positive (A) and negative (B) ionization mode.
Raw LC-HRMS/MS data were processed using XCMS Online platform (Gowda et al., 2014). In particular, the platform applies peak detection, retention time correction, profile alignment, and isotope annotation. The raw files were organized in datasets and processed as a multi-group type experiment. The parameters were set as follows: centWave for feature detection (Δm/z = 5 ppm, minimum and maximum peak width 5 and 40 s, respectively); obiwarp settings for retention time correction (profStep = 1); parameters for chromatogram alignment, including mzwid = 0.025, minfrac = 0.5, and bw = 5. The relative quantification of the identified compounds was based on the corresponding peak areas. Metabolite identification was based on accurate mass (within 2 ppm) and/or MS 2 data match against MS 2 spectra of compounds available on mzCloud database (HighChem LLC, Slovakia). The results output was exported and processed with MetaboAnalyst 3.0 for MSA (Xia and Wishart, 2016). Principal component analysis (PCA) was obtained after data normalization by a specified feature (CBD-d3) and autoscaling. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) was performed to maximize the groups difference. One-way ANOVA test was performed setting the adjusted p-value cut-off at 0.01 and using the Tukey’s honest Significant Difference post hoc test. A heatmap was built according to Euclidean distance and Ward clustering algorithm on normalized and auto-scaled data.
One-way ANOVA test of the ten hemp seed oil samples limited to the selected cannabinoids. Red points indicate statistically significant features, green points indicate features that do not contribute to the statistical difference (adjusted p-value cut-off: 0.01, post hoc test: Tukey’s Honest Significant Difference test).
Transparency is vital to your hemp CBD product buy. Look at what the company adds to its product, including other flavors and sweeteners. For example, Populum adds cold-pressed orange, grape seed, and coconut oils, with a little Stevia for taste. Some sites, including Project CBD, recommend staying away from junk ingredients like artificial flavorings and corn syrup.
When searching for a hemp CBD product, Gretchen Lidicker, a health editor at mindbodygreen.com and author of the upcoming book, CBD Oil: Everyday Secrets says to opt for “full spectrum” hemp-derived oil, for the best opportunity to receive the “entourage effect.”
Why opt for US grown? It’s easier to research the growers and ensure you’re getting a better product. US growers have to abide by FDA rules, and if you’re seeking something certified organic, they have to show proof of that too.
Reading other people’s reviews on products can help guide you when making decisions on what to buy, whether you’re looking to treat anxiety or find a pet-friendly hemp CBD oil for your pup.
Check Other Ingredients
“The milligrams of CBD are what counts,” Nolte writes. “If you’re new to CBD, we recommend using 2 to 3 milligrams daily at first.”
Both CBD and THC (the psychoactive substance in marijuana) are the two biggest cannabinoids out of the potentially hundreds of different cannabinoids found in all types of cannabis plants, but THC is the one that gets you high. In turn, CBD has benefits without the buzz.
What’s so great about hemp-derived CBD products? Hemp is a powerhouse as a multifunctional and sustainable plant. Despite some gray areas in legality, hemp CBD products are available in all 50 states and online, making it widely accessible for everyone.
Go Full Spectrum
“My number one rule for picking high-quality CBD products is to always make sure the company is testing the final product to make sure the cannabinoids are intact,” says Lidicker. “They should be testing for potency, but also for contaminants like heavy metals, pesticides, and microbes.”
A hemp CBD product will likely come from industrial hemp, the tall, fast-growing plant that resembles bamboo. Industrial hemp is known for its stalks and seeds which can be used to make almost anything, from oils to clothes, to plastic substitutes. Your hemp CBD product can technically come from either cannabis plant – it just really boils down to being below that magic number of 0.3% of THC in the product.