Its overall objective is to encourage actions, which will lead to a sustainable future.
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is the international legal instrument for “the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources” that has been ratified by 196 nations.
The CBD’s governing body is the Conference of the Parties (COP). This ultimate authority of all governments (or Parties) that have ratified the treaty meets every two years to review progress, set priorities and commit to work plans.
The Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (SCBD) is based in Montreal, Canada. Its main function is to assist governments in the implementation of the CBD and its programmes of work, to organize meetings, draft documents, and coordinate with other international organizations and collect and spread information. The Executive Secretary is the head of the Secretariat.
The conservation of biodiversity is a common concern of humankind. The Convention on Biological Diversity covers biodiversity at all levels: ecosystems, species and genetic resources. It also covers biotechnology, including through the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. In fact, it covers all possible domains that are directly or indirectly related to biodiversity and its role in development, ranging from science, politics and education to agriculture, business, culture and much more.
Contracting Parties are required to create and enforce national strategies and action plans to conserve, protect and enhance biological diversity. They are also required to undertake action to implement the thematic work programmes on ecosystems and a range of cross-cutting issues which have been established to take forward the provisions of the Convention.
As the first global treaty to provide a legal framework for biodiversity conservation, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) of 1992 established three main goals:
Biodiversity refers to the infinite variety of life forms; genetic diversity – variation of genes within individual species, species diversity – variety of species in flora and fauna, and ecosystem diversity – variety of ecosystems, such as rainforests, coral reefs and deserts, that exist on our planet. This biological diversity is the sine qua non for the resilience of ecosystems and life forms and their ability to prevent and to recover from disasters and adverse conditions. Activities of microbial and animal species lead to soil creation, the maintenance of its quality and detoxification and decomposition of wastes. Appropriate plant cover can prevent catastrophic inundations, landslides and avalanches, mitigates soil erosion, and contributes to air and water quality, as well as to climate stabilization. The maintenance of species diversity facilitates natural pest control, pollination, crop production and food security. Furthermore, biological diversity plays an important role in the spiritual and cultural life of human societies.
Preface: The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) of 1992 was signed on 5 June, 1992 at the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro and ratified in 1993.
The Nagoya Protocol aims to share the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources in a fair and equitable way, including by appropriate access to genetic resources and by appropriate transfer of relevant technologies, taking into account all rights over those resources, thereby contributing to the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of its components.
What is “Convention on Biological Diversity”? Each year, migratory birds complete amazing journeys between their breeding and wintering grounds. Migratory birds are a vital part of biodiversity and play a critical role in all ecosystems. They also play an important cultural, aesthetic and economic role in the lives of people around the world.
Report card: UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.
Subsequently, the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity was adopted on 29 October 2010 at the 10 th Conference of the Parties to the CBD. It will enter into force on the 90 th day after the 50 th ratification is deposited.